The Malacca Sultanate (Malay: Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: کسلطانن ملايو ملاک) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Sfortunatamente, a causa dei dissensi tra Mahmud Shah e Tun Mutahir, fu ordito un complotto per uccidere de Sequeira, imprigionare i suoi uomini e catturare la flotta portoghese ancora ancorata al fiume Malacca. Hang Tuah, the most intelligent among them is able to speak fluently 12 languages including Mandarin, Arabic, Javanese, Persian, and Japanese. However, its success alarmed two regional powers at that time, Ayuthaya from the north and Majapahit from the south. Costui era figlio del principe Rana Wira Kerma, raja del piccolo regno di Temasek (l'antico nome di Singapore), il quale, costretto all'esilio dall'esercito del regno rivale di Majapahit nel 1401, giunse nei pressi prima alle foci del fiume Seletar e poi nel territorio dell'attuale cittadina malese di Muar. Nel XIV secolo, Singapura si sviluppò in concomitanza con l'era della Pax mongolica e ascese da piccolo avamposto commerciale a centro del commercio internazionale con forti legami con la dinastia Yuan. Yongle responded in October 1419 by sending his envoy to warn the Siamese ruler. The kingdom conveniently controls the global trade vital choke point; the narrow strait that today bears its name, Straits of Malacca. Parameswara (1401 to 1511) was the founder of Malacca. By the second half of 14th century, Kingdom of Singapura grew wealthy. [65] Over time, this common Malay cultural idiom came to characterise much of the Maritime Southeast Asia through the Malayisation. De Sequeira fu costretto a fuggire, lasciando la maggior parte del suo equipaggio nelle mani dei Malacca, che li catturarono. It established systems of trade, diplomacy, and governance that persisted well into the 19th century, and introduced concepts such as daulat – a distinctly Malay notion of sovereignty – that continues to shape contemporary understanding of Malay kingship. However, with gradual improvement of relations and aid given against the Japanese Wokou pirates along China's shores, by 1557 Ming China finally agreed to allow the Portuguese to settle at Macau in a new Portuguese trade colony. The forces were commanded by Tun Perak and assisted by Tun Hamzah, a warrior by the nickname Datuk Bongkok. By the time they sacked the city and the palace, Sultan Mahmud Shah had already retreated.[50]. Malacca was a very ancient Sultanate dating from even before the Muhammadan religion reached the Straits of Malacca. The Chinese Emperor also granted permission for Malacca to retaliate with violent force should the Vietnamese attack, an event that never happened again after that. This is contrary with the achievements of older kingdoms of the Malay Peninsula such as Kedah and Langkasuka that only exerted their influence over a significant northern portion of the peninsula. Parameswara (also known as "Iskandar Syah" in some accounts) fled north to Muar, Ujong Tanah and Biawak Busuk before reaching a fishing village at the mouth of Bertam river (modern-day Malacca River). Upon becoming king in 1481, John II of Portugal determined to break this chain and control the lucrative spice trade directly from its source. At its climax c.1500 it controlled the Malay peninsula and the central section of Eastern Sumatra (Siak, Indragiri). [3][4][5], Dopo un periodo di ricchezza e di conquiste territoriali, il sultanato divenne oggetto delle mire espansionistiche del Portogallo che ne invase il territorio nel 1511 ponendo fine a questo stato molto importante per la storia religiosa e politica di questa regione. Malacca had an edge over these ports because its Rulers created an environment that was safe and conducive for business. [2], Essendo un vivace porto commerciale internazionale, Malacca divenne il caposaldo da cui iniziò ad irradiarsi in tutta la regione dell'arcipelago malese la diffusione della religione islamica, della letteratura e delle arti malesi. This article attempts to look at the impact of Islamization process on the Sultanate of Malacca during the 15th century. The indigenous inhabitants of the straits, the Orang Laut, were employed to patrol the adjacent sea areas, to repel other petty pirates, and to direct traders to Malacca. A looming threat from the Siamese kingdom of Ayuthaya became a reality when it launched a land invasion of Malacca in 1446. The Malay Sultanate of Malacca: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك Kesultanan Melayu Melaka: 1400–1511: The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century. Malacca Malacca Sultanate ruled for 110 years until defeated by the Portuguese in 1511 ... (1446-1458) and proclaimed Islam as the state religion. [55] The furious Chinese emperor responded with brutal force, culminating the period of three decades of prosecution of Portuguese in China. For centuries, the people of Southeast Asia slowly began to accept Islam and create Muslim towns and kingdoms. Religion has long been a significant factor in the process of globalization. road (to the sea)." Bendahara was also responsible for ensuring cordial relations with foreign states. La situazione preannunciò l'età dell'oro dei sultanati malesi nell'arcipelago, un'epoca in cui il malese il malese classico divenne la lingua franca del sudest asiatico marittimo e la scrittura Jawi divenne il principale mezzo di scambio culturale, religioso e intellettuale. The year that the Sultanate of Malacca finally consolidated its hold on the Straits was fateful. [22] In 1414, the Ming Shilu mentions that the son of the first ruler of Malacca visited Ming court to inform Yongle that his father had died.[23]. During the reign of Parameswara's son, Megat Iskandar Shah (r. 1414–1424), the kingdom continued to prosper. During the reign of Sultan Mansur Syah, Malacca succeeded in . Of the so-called Wali Sanga ('nine saints') responsible in spreading Islam on Java, at least two, Sunan Bonang and Sunan Kalijaga, are said to have studied in Malacca. The Malacca Sultanate is a descendent of the Srivijaya Kingdom which dominated Java, Sumatra, and the Malay Peninsula prior to the rise of Majapahit. Meanwhile, Mahmud Shah's other son, Alauddin succeeded his father and established the Sultanate of Johor. The Malacca Sultanate - Volume 1 Issue 2 - P. E. De Josselin De Jong, H. L. A. Nel 1414 Parameswara sposò una principessa proveniente dall'allora potente stato musulmano di Pasai, ed assunse il titolo di pascià ed un nuovo nome, ovvero quello di Megat Iskandar Shah (reclamando, cosa comune nei sovrani di questa epoca, la propria discendenza dal grande re macedone Alessandro Magno), ma, cosa più importante, su richiesta del sovrano di Pasai, si convertì all'islam. The rise of Malacca as a centre of Islam had a number of crucial implications. Parameswara fled to the island of Temasik with his loyal company of 30 orang laut (sea people). The name "Malacca" itself was derived from the fruit-bearing Melaka tree (Malay: Pokok Melaka) scientifically termed as Phyllanthus emblica. Malacca: Politica; Forma di governo: monarchia: Nascita: 1402 con Parameswara: Causa: fondazione del regno Fine: 1511 con Mahmud Shah di Malacca: Causa: invasione portoghese: Territorio e popolazione; Massima estensione: 210.000 kmq nel XVI secolo Popolazione: 100.000 nel XVI secolo: Economia; Valuta: monete locali d'oro e d'argento Religione e società; Religione di Stato: Islam • Other Malay states started to be known. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating it, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the Asian trade network. Because of these roles, Malacca is considered by many to be the spiritual birthplace of Malaysia. Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. As a result, the village became a safe haven and in the 1370s it began to receive a growing number of refugees running away from Mahapahit's attacks. Malacca armed forces were immediately sent to Pasai and defeated the usurpers. Such was the importance of sending envoys during the Malacca Sultanate. The king together with his royal family, senior officials and the subjects of Malacca listened to his teachings. Below him was a bendahara, a position similar to that of a prime minister. The military prowess of the sultanate was further strengthened by the nine elite knights of the kingdom. The Malay Annals even reveals that the courts of Malacca and Pasai posed theological questions and problems to one another. He was the leader among them and was conferred the office of laksamana ('admiral') by the Sultan. He arrived in Malacca on 1 August 1509 carrying with him a letter from the King. Unfortunately, however, the Malacca Sultanate would not last, as the newly powerful Portugal conquered the kingdom in 1511 and began a centuries-long period of European domination. [33], The sultanate was governed with several set of laws. The Portuguese gained control, which started almost five centuries of colonialism. In this article, the author attempts to explore and review religious factors involved in the history of Malacca (Melaka) and in the missionary work of Robert Morrison in the early 19th century. One of the most important highways of trade in the pre-modern world was the Strait of Malacca. [53], — Qiu Dao Long, the Investigating Censor of Ming, Ming Shilu, 13 January 1521[54]. They were Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat, Hang Kasturi, Hang Lekir, Hang Lekiu, Hang Ali, Hang Iskandar, Hang Hasan and Hang Husain. Malacca sultanate heralded the golden age of ... Malacca attracted Muslim traders from various part of the world and became a centre of Islam, disseminating the religion throughout the Maritime Southeast Asia. [62] As a result of mutual agreement between the Dutch and Johor earlier in 1606, Malacca was handed over to the Dutch. Secondly, Islam was an important factor in enabling Malacca to foster good relations with other Islamic polities, including the Ottoman Empire, thereby attracting Muslim traders to Malacca. Among the earliest victims were the Portuguese envoys led by Tomé Pires in 1516 that were greeted with great hostility and suspicion. At that time, Majapahit was already at a declining state and found itself unable to overcome on the rising power of the Malay sultanate. Parameswara (1401 to 1511) was the founder of Malacca. Perhaps the most important of these kingdoms was the Sultanate of Malacca (Melaka in Malay), which reached its peak in the mid-1400s. That same year, Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope from Portugal with four ships, crossed the Indian Ocean and landed on 27 May 1498 at Calicut on the Malabar coast. While there are differing views on when the Islamization of Malacca actually took place, it is generally agreed that Islam was firmly established during the reign of Muzaffar Shah (r. Bandung, Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press and UBD Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam, ISSN 2302-5808. Malacca had a well-defined government with a set of laws. 1445–59). Malacca has long been a meeting place for various religions in their respective processes of globalization.