Wary of Communist Russia and fearful of a Communist takeover in China, Japan moved toward a policy of imperialist aggression. However, it would take several more months for the Allies to accept the surrender of all the 4 million Japanese troops abroad, with the first British forces returning to Singapore in early September. After the Russo-J…, JAPAN The first Japanese garrison in Malaya to lay down their arms was in Penang on 2 September 1945 aboard HMS Nelson. Indeed, the slogan of "Asia for the Asians" pointed to an Asia liberated from Western domination but unified under Japanese rule. Malaya was gradually occupied by the Japanese between 8 December 1941 and the Allied surrender at Singapore on 16 February 1942. Throughout the occupied territories, moreover, Japanese troops inflicted violence on the local populations, which included the forcing of females into sexual slavery as "comfort women." In the spring of 1942, Japanese Premier Tojo Hideki (1884–1948) began organizing a Greater East Asia Ministry that would direct the affairs of the occupied nations and territories. Japan's own imperialist drive extended its control over the broadest expanse of territory that Japan would ever know. And Japanese … The Coprosperity Sphere was heralded as a pact of "mutual cooperation" between the signatory nations that aimed to "ensure stability of their region and construct an order of common prosperity and well-being based upon justice.". The first-ever attempt to paint a full-scale portrait of the Japanese Occupation of Southeast Asia during the Asia-Pacific War (1942–5). Some prisoners of war (POWs) were sent to work in Japan, others to toil on the ‘Death Railway’ between Burma and Thailand. On 9 March, 1945, Japanese occupied Laos, so Laos stayed under the administration of French along with Japanese supervision. Indonesia's Sukarno (1901–1970) would declare independence for his country on August 17, 1945, eight days after the atomic bomb fell over Nagasaki. The Greater East Asian Coprosperity Sphere was inaugurated in November 1942 with a promise to create a pan-Asian union. Indeed, Japan had promised independence to the Dutch East Indies but placed more than 23,000 Japanese officials in its colonial bureaucracy. Tokyo, Japan In reality, the Japanese occupation entailed harsh measures of control over national governments, economies, and cultures, with the settlement in the colonized countries of thousands of Japanese officials and laborers, all mainly for the benefit of Japan itself. Throughout the occupied territories, Japanese soldiers acted under no obligation to obey officers or even sentries of the "host" countries' military forces. Gluck, Carol. At present, there are 700,000 Koreans in Japan, three-fourths of whom were born in a…, Japan, Relations with Brown, Roger H. "Japanese Expansion." Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. San Diego: Greenhaven, 2004. Typically, Japanese officials held the bulk of authority in colonial administrations, whereas locals were consigned to subordinate functions. This was developed by General Hachirō Arita, an army ideologist who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1936 to 1940. Busch, Noel F. "A Flawed Democracy Falters." Japan invaded British-controlled Malaya in December 1941 from the east coast at the same time that Singapore was bombarded. New York: Scribner's Sons, 2002. During its occupation of Southeast Asia between 1941 and 1945, Japan managed to advance economic and social structural changes in the region. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Japanese Artists and Art Policy in Japanese-occupied Indonesia and Singapore, 1942-1945. Textbooks and periodicals were censored or banned, and Nippongo (the Japanese language) became a required part of the curriculum. This is a list of regions occupied or annexed by the Empire of Japan until 1945, the year of the end of World War II in Asia, after the surrender of Japan. At the same time, King Sisavang Vong, who tried to declare independence of Laos and accepted Laos under the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity sphere, were put into the prison … Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). The Great Depression of the 1930s meant a loss of sales to foreign clients and the imposition of tariffs on Japanese imports. In Japan, edited by Clay Farris Naff, 120-132. Meanwhile, the Soviets completed their conquest of Manchuria, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. Some camps had death rates below 1 per cent, others of over 20 per cent. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. ENVIRONMENT In the years leading up to World War II, Japan began to aggre…, JAPANESE AMERICANS have contributed significantly to the political strength, economic development, and social diversity of the United States. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. In this confrontation, the British fleet was sunk in the South China Sea. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/southeast-asia-japanese-occupation, "Southeast Asia, Japanese Occupation of Japan briefly occupied the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula during the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895). Japanese Surrender in South-East Asia On 15 August 1945, Japan agreed to unconditional surrender, bringing an end to World War II. TOPOGRAPHY Died December 23, 1948 Japan attacked British and American territories with near-simultaneous offensives against Southeast Asia and the Central Pacific on 7/8 December 1941. In a unique confluence of historical movements, the Japanese occupation in Southeast Asia set countries of the region into multiple conflicts against powers that were fascist or imperialist or both. In 1937 Prime Minister Konoye Fumimaro (1891–1945) declared a "New Order in East Asia"; in political reality, its mission was to erect a buffer or Asian hinterland to ensure the security of an expanded Japanese Empire. From 1941 to 1945: 202,958 dead; another 54,000 dead after war's end. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. While POWs were deployed far and wide as a captive labour force, civilian internees were generally detained locally. In Operation Tiderace, British seaborne liberation forces led by Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander of South East Asia Command, arrive in Japanese-occupied Singapore on 4 September 1945 without encountering any opposition. This is a list of regions occupied or annexed by the Empire of Japan until 1945. London: Longman, 1987. Meyer, Milton W. "The Pacific War." MIGRATION ." CLIMATE Some prisoners of war (POWs) were sent to work in Japan and Taiwan, others to labour on the ‘Death Railway’ between Thailand and Burma. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1988. Disclaimer: Not all areas were considered part of Imperial Japan but rather part of puppet states & sphere of influence, allies, included separately for demographic purposes. (January 12, 2021). Japanese-occupied Asia. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Though short-lived (roughly 1941–45, differing according to country), Japan’s occupation of Southeast Asia promised mutuality, friendship, autonomy, cooperation and co-prosperity, but delivered a brutality and … Control over all territories except the Japanese mainland was renounced by Japan in the Unconditional Surrender after World War II and the Treaty of San Francisco. Yet the defeat of Japan at the end of the Pacific War meant both the end of the Japanese Empire in Southeast Asia and the sunset of Western colonialism in the region. Paper Money: World - Asia - Japan Numismatic Directory, With values and Images (Page 1) Aimed at resolving the "Manchurian Question," the takeover of the entire 400,000-square-mile (about 1,036,000-squarekilometer) region, with its population of thirty million, brought on denunciations not only from the League of Nations, from which Japan would withdraw in 1933, but also from the United States, whose tariffs and restrictions on immigration had already produced anti-American hostilities among the Japanese. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. The Soviets shoot down a B-29 Superfortress dropping supplies to POWs in Korea August 29, 1945. San Diego: Greenhaven, 2004. Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. . It was created in October 1943 and supported by – as well as largely dependent on – the Empire of Japan. ETHNONYMS: Chösenjin (North Koreans), Kankokujin (South Koreans) Keay, John. The Japanese occupation of South East Asia 857 Wartime Borneo Ooi Keat Gin's The Japanese Occupation of Borneo, 1941-1945 extends the author's earlier work on the wartime events on that island. Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/southeast-asia-japanese-occupation. Prelude. Some prisoners of war (POWs) were sent to work in Japan, others to toil on the ‘Death Railway’ between Burma and Thailand. Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. . In Encyclopedia of Modern Asia, edited by David Levinson and Karen Christensen, Vol. During the Japanese occupation of Laos, enormous amount of French officials were imprisoned. The Japanese occupation of Southeast Asia developed out of what was arguably the first international conflict that was truly "global," in that it mounted a challenge to the Eurocentric world system and to increasing American intervention in the region. Japanese troops invaded French-controlled Cochin China (southern Vietnam), entering Saigon (later called Ho Chi Minh City) in July of 1941. Japan's leaders in the occupation championed the fight for Japanese hegemony in East Asia, which they saw as a legitimate right, and led what they conceived as a pan-Asian struggle to throw off the yoke of Western imperialism. Title: Japanese-Occupied Asia from 1941 to 1945: One Occupier, Many Captivities and Memories : Publication Type: Book Chapter: Year of Publication: 2008: Authors: Hack, Karl, and Kevin Blackburn: Editor: Hack, Karl, and Kevin Blackburn: Pagination: 1-20: Publisher: Routledge: City: London: Entry … The powerful Japanese army subscribed to the colonialist theory that the key to Japan's future prosperity and strength as a world power lay in control of Chinese raw materials and the vast market that that country had to offer. Experiences of captivity in Japanese-occupied Asia varied enormously. The ruling worsened tensions between the two countries, whose relations had already plunged to the lowest level in decades over earlier South Korean rulings on Japan’s actions during its 1910-1945 colonial rule of the Korean Peninsula. Action in this theatre ended when Japan announced an intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. After the Japanese were defeated by the Allies in WWII and China came under Communist control, Xiamen became a backwater. On July 24, Tokyo decided to strengthen its position in terms of its invasion of China by moving through Southeast Asia. Names for the war. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. 12 Jan. 2021 . TRANSPORTATION…, Tokyo, Japan Iriye, Akira. With the internment of some 100,000 Dutch and Eurasians, many Javanese rejoiced, welcoming the invasion as a step in the process of "liberation from the colonial yoke.". Some camps had death rates below 1 per cent, others of over 20 per cent. Japanese surrender in Karafuto (south Sakhalin Island). Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. The Japanese remained in occupation until their surrender to the Allies in 1945. Japanese-Occupied Asia from 1941 to 1945: One Occupier, Many Captivities and Memories . LANGUAGES This action on the part of the Japanese brought them into opposition with the Allied powers. The failure to win the Second Sino-Japanese War 1937–1941 (–1945) was blamed on British and American exploitation of Southeast Asian colonies, even though the Chinese received far more assistance from the Soviet Union. Experiences of captivity in Japanese-occupied Asia varied enormously. Wanting control over raw materials in Malaya, the Japanese chose to impose direct rule. This enabled the region to be economically stable. British rule in Asia had ended. A number of territories occupied by the United States after 1945 were returned to Japan, but there are still a number of disputed territories between Japan and Russia (the Kuril Islands dispute), South Korea and North Korea (the Liancourt Rocks dispute), the People's Republic of China and Taiwan (the Senkaku Islands dispute). The Allies had difficulty maintaining communications with Australia, and British naval losses promised the Japanese navy further freedom of action. B-29s drop supplies to Allied POWs in China. Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. . Japan's leaders in the occupation championed the fight for Japanese hegemony in East Asia, which they saw as a … JAPAN, RELATIONS WITH. "World War II in Asia." Credit: National Archives and Records Administration. POPULATION Japan had joined Vichy France in enforcing a protectorate over the entire French colony. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Encyclopedia.com. RELIGIONS The Japanese occupied the area (the Japanese were already in Taiwan, then Formosa, beginning in 1895) from 1938 to 1945. Empire's End: A History of the Far East from High Colonialism to Hong Kong. Russia formally leased the area from China in 1898 but under the Portsmouth Treaty (1905) Japan replaced Russia as the leaseholder and the … 1 Outbreak of hostilities South … They were among tens of thousands of women across Japanese-occupied Asia and the Pacific who were sent to front-line Japanese army brothels. In Allied countries during the war, the "Pacific War" was not usually distinguished from World War II in general, or was known simply as the War against Japan.In the United States, the term Pacific Theater was widely used, although this was a misnomer in relation to the Allied campaign in Burma, the war in China and other activities within the South-East Asian Theater. For this reason, Japanese political leaders looked with envy at the Dutch, French and British colonies across Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Yet the brutality of Japanese rule and the establishment of a pro-Japanese hierarchy produced disillusionment throughout Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia, Japanese Occupation of. Naff, Clay Farris, ed. In August 1945, as Japan’s empire abruptly collapsed, over three million civilians along with close to four million military personnel were living outside of Japan’s home islands. On invading northern Indochina, Japanese troops tried to close the Burma Road by which the Americans and the British brought supplies to the Chinese Nationalists. This is a list of regions occupied or annexed by the Empire of Japan until 1945, the year of the end of World War II in Asia, after the surrender of Japan. Between 1932 and 1945, Japan forced women from Korea, China and other occupied countries to become military prostitutes. In September 1931, units of the Japanese army stationed in Manchuria in northeastern China took steps to protect the security of the Russian-built railroad that Japan had acquired a quarter-century earlier. "Southeast Asia, Japanese Occupation of The Japanese occupation of Southeast Asia developed out of what was arguably the first international conflict that was truly "global," in that it mounted a challenge to the Eurocentric world system and to increasing American intervention in the region. Japan. Relations between Japan and the United States have been a complex mix of cooperation, competition, and c…, Manchurian Incident or Mukden Incident, 1931, confrontation that gave Japan the impetus to set up a puppet government in Manchuria. The subsequent freezing of Japanese financial assets by the United States and its embargo on all oil exports to Japan led to the latter's decision to wage war against its Western adversaries. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Japan suppressed shows of anti-Japanese nationalism in the occupied countries and exacted forced labor from their peoples. The Provisional Government of Free India (Arzi Hakumat-e-Azad Hind) or, more simply, Azad Hind, was an Indian provisional government established in Japanese occupied Singapore during World War II. August 27, 1945. region during the 1941 to 1945 Japanese occupation and its aftermath. The Nazi offensives in Europe gave Japan the opportunity to move into territories southward and thus build alliances in opposition to the British, Dutch, Russians, and Americans. Like al…, Southeast Arkansas College: Narrative Description, Southeast Arkansas College: Distance Learning Programs, Southampton, Thomas Wriothesley, 4th earl of, Southampton, Thomas Wriothesley, 1st earl of, Southampton series classificatory programme, South-Eastern Underwriters Association v. United States 322 U.S. 533 (1944), Southeast Asian Religions: History of Study, Southeast Asian Religions: Insular Cultures, Southeast Asian Religions: Mainland Cultures, Southeast Asian Religions: New Religious Movements in Insular Cultures, Southeast Community College, Beatrice Campus, Southeast Community College, Beatrice Campus: Distance Learning Programs, Southeast Community College, Beatrice Campus: Narrative Description, Southeast Community College, Beatrice Campus: Tabular Data, Southeast Community College, Lincoln Campus, Southeast Community College, Lincoln Campus: Distance Learning Programs, Southeast Community College, Lincoln Campus: Narrative Description, Southeast Community College, Lincoln Campus: Tabular Data, Southeast Community College, Milford Campus, Southeast Community College, Milford Campus: Distance Learning Programs, Southeast Community College, Milford Campus: Narrative Description, Southeast Community College, Milford Campus: Tabular Data, Southeast Community College: Narrative Description, Southeast Community College: Tabular Data, Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College: Narrative Description, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/southeast-asia-japanese-occupation, Anticolonialism, East Asia and the Pacific. In Encyclopedia of Asian History, edited by Ainslee T. Embree, Vol. North Borneo would be occupied, then, in February, Singapore and Bali. By January 4, 1942, the Japanese took control of Manila, and the Japanese Imperial High Command announced the "liberation" of the formerly American-controlled Philippines. In the Philippines, Japanese troops occupied Manila in January 1942, although Corregidor held out until May; Singapore fell in February, and the Dutch East Indies and Rangoon (Burma) in early March. Chiang Kai-Shek took the Kuomintang and most of China’s national treasures across the Strait to Taiwan and so Xiamen became the front line against … A number of territories occupied by the United States after 1945 were returned to Japan, but there are still a number of disputed territories between Japan … A year later, leaders of Japan, China, Manchukuo (Japanese Manchuria), Malaya, Thailand, Burma (Myanmar), Singapore, and the Philippines met at the Greater East Asia Conference in Tokyo, where they declared their solidarity and united opposition to Western imperialism. ." see also Empire, Japanese; Occupations, East Asia; Occupations, the Pacific. Japan in these movements was seeking to acquire control over the tin, rubber, and oil of Indonesia. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Prior to World War II (1939–1945), Japan controlled Korea (formally annexed in 1910), Taiwan (colonized in 1895), Karafuto (or Sakhalin Island), the Guangdong Leased Territory, and the Pacific Islands (most of Micronesia), and sought to integrate their economies with its own as suppliers of raw materials and foodstuffs in exchange for Japanese investment and technology. San Diego: Greenhaven, 2004. Worden, Robert L. "The Militarists Take Power." ETHNIC GROUPS In September 1940 Japan signed the Tripartite Pact, becoming therewith the ally of Germany and Italy. Japan subsequently proclaimed the expansion of its new order into French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies. Sources: POPULSTAT Asia[3] Oceania[4], Raided without immediate intent of occupation, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPeattie1988 (, http://www.populstat.info/Oceania/oceania.html, Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan and British North Borneo, Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, German pre–World War II industrial co-operation, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Japanese dissidence in 20th-century Imperial Japan, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_territories_occupied_by_Imperial_Japan&oldid=1000311135, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Present day Japan, Kuril and Ryukyu Islands, Maraya (マラヤ), Kita Boruneo (北ボルネオ), Malai (マライ), March 27, 1942 – September 6, 1945 (Malaya), March 29, 1942 – September 9, 1945 (Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan, North Borneo), from United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 16:09. In Japan, edited by Clay Farris Naff, 106-111. In mobilizing the masses for their cause, the Japanese high commands broadcast pro-Japanese propaganda on the radio and controlled the media. The end of World War II in Asia occurred on 2 September 1945, ... 1945. In Japan, edited by Clay Farris Naff, 112-119. Japan finally conquered Malaya in January 1942 and soon thereafter the Dutch East Indies, the great prize in this contest, in March 1942. The temporary victory of Japan in Asia signified an end to the myth of Western invincibility and gave the European colonial regimes in Southeast Asia a shock from which they never recovered. REGIONAL SOCIAL AND CULTURAL STUDIES PROGRAMME – ART IN SOUTHEAST ASIA SEMINAR SERIES. ." "Southeast Asia, Japanese Occupation of While POWs were deployed far and wide as a captive labour force, civilian internees were generally detained locally. Chinese forces also report that by May 1945, 22,293 Japanese soldiers were captured as prisoners. With the conclusion of the Hanoi convention in Spring of 1940, Japan had obtained permission from France to occupy northern Indochina. Dr Hélène Njoto, ISEAS Visiting Fellow, introducing Mr Antariksa to the audience at the start of the seminar (Source: ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute) Once the Nazis had taken over the Netherlands in May of 1940, Japan sent its delegates to Batavia (Jakarta), but it was not until after Japan's incursions in 1942 and its subsequent occupation that the Dutch conceded rights to oil and other resources in the Indonesian archipelago. Control over all territories except the Japanese mainland (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku, and some 6,000 small surrounding islands) was renounced by Japan in the Unconditional Surrender after World War II and the Treaty of San Francisco. Japanese military and political leader The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place on 2 September 1945. 3, 258-260. 4, 230-235. The Japanese intention to gain control of Borneo was associated with the concept of a unified Greater East Asia. Control over all territories except the Japanese mainland (Hokkaidō, Honshū, Kyūshū, Shikoku, and some 6000 small surrounding islands) was renounced by Japan in the Surrender after World War II and the Treaty of San Francisco. It also enabled the region to be more focused on the enhancement of a stable wealth acquisition process. Such outrages bred dissatisfaction but also catalyzed nationalist movements. August 29, 1945. While there is almost no comparative work on wartime urban growth, substantial literatures exist on either side of the 1940s gap. In the countries it occupied, Japanese authorities imposed educational reforms that would replace Western teachings with principles consistent with the "new order." LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT New York: Scribner, 1997. Aikoku Koshinkyoku or Patriotic March was a song used during the Second World War for occupied territories in Asia replacing that country's national anthem. Ooi has already written extensively on the war in areas of Borneo formerly under British colonial control.2 A major addition of this monograph is to cover FLORA AND FAUNA The Origins of the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific. In North China alone, 18,000 soldiers were evacuated back to Japan for illnesses in 1938, 23,000 in 1939, and 15,000 in 1940. The expansion of its invasion of China by moving through Southeast Asia in Korea August 29,.... Their arms was in Penang on 2 September 1945 aboard HMS Nelson their surrender to the,! `` a Flawed Democracy Falters. language ) became a required part of the Hanoi convention in Spring 1940. As well as largely dependent on – the Empire of Japan until 1945: //www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/southeast-asia-japanese-occupation, Southeast. 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( page 1 ) Japanese-occupied Asia took place on 2 September 1945 aboard HMS Nelson, in,...