7) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in cross pollinated crops : Maize, Bajra, Sunflower, Papaya, Sugarcane. Lec 12 Emasculation and Pollination Techniques 51-53 Lec 13 Maize 54-57 Lec 14 Red gram 58-64 Lec 15 Sugarcane 65-70 Lec 16 Methods of breeding – introduction and acclimatization 71-79 Lec 17 Hybridization – Aims, objectives and types of hybridization 80-88 Lec 18 Back cross method and various modified methods 89-99 Hybridization proceeds in two steps: Emasculation; Bagging; Emasculation Emasculation and Crossing techniques. Emasculation should be over well ahead of the time of anthesis. 1. emasculation (37.2%), where the exposed stigmas significantly reduced the frequency of embryo formation. The breeding methods that have proved successful with self-pollinated species are: (1) mass selection; (2) pure-line selection; (3) hybridization, with the segregating generations handled by the pedigree method, the bulk method, or by the backcross method; and (4) development of hybrid varieties.. Mass selection. In cert ain self-pollinated species such as soybean (25) and common bean (4), hybrid seeds can be obtained by p ollinating the stigmas without emasculation. After the emasculation, flowers are covered with a paper bag until pollination (Basra, 1999). Also, the plants with the desired characteristics can be grown. The techniques require skilled hands since the process involves the bringing of the stigma and poller of different plants together. The following methods are widely used for hybridization in rice. Crossing techniques in rice differ based on the method of emasculation. Two crossing techniques for hybridization of chickpea have been reported and include pollination after emasculation and pollination without emasculation. Definition of Hybridization: The mating or crossing of two plants of dissimilar genotype is known as hybridization. Steps in Artificial Hybridization. Method of Plant Breeding in Cross Pollinated Plants – Hybridization Definition of Hybridization: The mating or crossing of two plants of dissimilar genotype is known as hybridization. In plant crossing is done by placing pollen grain from one genotype (male parent) on to the stigma of flower of another genotype (female parents). Although emasculation is one of the main steps in hybridization, it is not a prerequisite for crossing. Emasculation should be over well ahead of the time of anthesis. Emasculation is necessarily followed by controlled pollination. During artificial hybridization, only the desired pollen grains are introduced to the stigma through pollination. ... Emasculation: This is a process where the anthers are removed physically in self- pollinated plants. Emasculation is performed by plant breeders in bisexual flowers to obtain the desired variety of a plant by crossing a particular plant with the desired pollen grain. Breeding self-pollinated species. Normally, the parents chosen for the cross are vigorous and healthy. In plant crossing is done by placing pollen grain from one genotype (male parent) on to the stigma of flower of another genotype (female parents). Cotton is generally emasculated by forceps and scissors and should be emasculated later in the afternoon. Method of Plant Breeding in Cross Pollinated Plants – Hybridization. Success of crossing with emasculation varied from 5 to 17%; while the success rate varied from 20 to 50% by pollination without emasculation. This helps to avoid unwanted pollen rejection and saves time. The seed as […] 8) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in often cross pollinated crops : Cotton, Sorghum, Pigeonpea Since maximum number of spikelets open on the 3rd or 4th day of anthesis, panicles of that stage are selected for emasculation. In certain self -pollinated species such as soybean (25) and common bean (4), hybrid seeds can be obtained by pollinating the Emasculation is done during early morning between 6 and 8 AM in spikelets, due to open on the same day. Several techniques have been developed for emasculation of small size flowers. Emasculation is the process of removing anthers from bisexual flowers without affecting the female reproductive part (pistil), which is used in various plant hybridization techniques. 6) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in self pollinated crops : Sesame, Chickpea, Okra, Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli. Crossing techniques in rice differ based on the method of emasculation. 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